A thermostat may be a control unit for a heating or cooling system or a component part of a heater or air conditioner. Thermostats can be constructed in many ways and may use a variety of sensors to measure the temperature. The output of the sensor then controls the heating or cooling apparatus.

The thermostat does this by switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as needed, to maintain the correct temperature.

Common sensor technologies include:

Bimetallic mechanical or electrical sensors.Expanding wax pellets ,Electronic thermistors and semiconductor devices ,Electrical thermocouples